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Library Online Tutorial for BRE366

About Module 5

In this module, you will learn:

  • What is a citation and a citation style
  • Ways to avoid plagiarism
  • How to cite sources properly, in IEEE or APA style

Citation and Avoid Plagiarism

Citation & Citation Style


Citation: A (Very) Brief Introduction -
NC State University Libraries [1:54]

A citation is a way of identifying and giving credits to others' published works that you used to support your own research. Citations can also be used to locate sources of works, as well as avoid plagiarism. 

A citation consists of two parts: in-text citation and reference list. In-text citations are brief references of sources within the text of the paper, while reference list is a complete list of references at the end of the paper.

A citation style defines the necessary information for a citation, how the information is ordered, and what format citations should follow. Generally, the citation style you use depends on your discipline. In engineering field, IEEE and APA are two commonly used citation styles. For any assignment you are working on, please do check with your instructor which citation style is required

Watch the video "Citation: A (Very) Brief Introduction" to learn what a citation is and why we cite.


How to avoid plagiarism

Citation is the key to avoid plagiarism, but that doesn't mean you can simply copy paste from others' works as long as you cite the source. To avoid plagiarism, here are two ways:

1. Paraphrase + Cite

Paraphrasing means to rewrite the sentence from a source in your own words without changing the meaning of the sentence. You still need to cite the source. Here is an example:

Original source Student's work

Hong Kong was the chosen location for Disney to build their first theme park in China. Opened in 2005 and located in Lantau Island, Disney’s entry into China required some customization for the Chinese visitors. From serving Chinese food and adding decoration and fittings with Chinese elements, Disney also included programmes to coincide with the major Chinese festivals celebrated in Hong Kong.

Source: Chan, TM. XXX. 2018.

Unacceptable paraphrasing:

Hong Kong Disneyland is the first Disney opened in China. Its entry in China required customization for the Chinese visitors, from serving Chinese food to adding Chinese elements to decoration and fittings.

This is plagiarism because the student

  • copied the sentence word-for-word
  • did not cite the source

Acceptable paraphrasing:

Hong Kong Disneyland is the first Disney opened in China. To meet the local needs as well as attract overseas visitors, the park was introduced with Chinese elements from food to decorations (Chan, 2018).

This is not plagiarism because the student

  • rewrote the sentence
  • cited the source properly

2. Quote + Cite

Quoting, or direct quoting, means to copy the exact words of a sentence from a source. You need to put the copied words in quotation marks " " and cite the source. 

Original source Student's work

Hong Kong was the chosen location for Disney to build their first theme park in China. Opened in 2005 and located in Lantau Island, Disney’s entry into China required some customization for the Chinese visitors. From serving Chinese food and adding decoration and fittings with Chinese elements, Disney also included programmes to coincide with the major Chinese festivals celebrated in Hong Kong.

Source: Chan, TM. XXX. 2018.

Paraphrasing with direct quotes:

Hong Kong Disneyland is the first Disney opened in China. To meet the local needs as well as attract overseas visitors, the park was introduced with Chinese elements from "serving Chinese food and adding decoration and fittings" (Chan, 2018, p. 10).

+ Reference list

All the sources you cited in the work need to be included in the reference list following a standard citation style. 


Good practices to avoid plagiarism: 

  1. When in doubt, always cite!
  2. ​Keep a list of all the reference materials you consulted and of course make notes (e.g. which are quotes and which are your own words)
  3. Use a reference management tool (e.g. EndNote) to help you organize references and make citations
  4. Have better time management, i.e. plan your work earlier
  5. Check with your supervisor or instructor the referencing guidelines for your assignment or essay

Watch the video "Avoiding Plagiarism" to learn more about plagiarism, paraphrasing and quoting. 


SCF Libraries - Avoiding Plagiarism [7:06]

How to Cite in APA and IEEE Style

APA style follows an author-year format in referencing. A citation contains two parts: 

1. In-text citation

  • Format: generally, author surname and publication year enclosed in parentheses
Examples: 
Chan (2016) studied that...
Chan (2016, p. 15) claimed that "..."
Couple of studies reported similar results (Chan, 2016; Smith & Booth, 2018; Gorman, Reese, & Smith, 2019)
... as stated in its annual report (Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 2017)

 

2. Reference list

  • Format: different type of sources uses different format of reference entry. See examples below. 
  • Order: all references are sorted by the author surname in alphabetical order.
Examples: 
► Book:
Mendenhall, W., Beaver, R., & Beaver, Barbara M. (2020). Introduction to Probability and Statistics (15th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.
► Journal article:
Li, H., Jing, X., Lam, H. K., & Shi, P. (2013). Fuzzy sampled-data control for uncertain vehicle suspension systems. IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics, 44(7), 1111-1126.
► Conference article:
Cheung, C. J., Law, S., & Zheng, Y. (2013). Development of 3-D ultrasound system for assessment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS): And system validation. Presented at the 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Osaka, Japan.
► Internet resource (webpage):
The Hong Kong Housing Authority. (2011). Housing in figures. Retrieved from http://www.housingauthority.gov.hk/en/pdf/about-us/publications-and-statistics/HIF2011.pdf

 

References:

IEEE style follows a numbered system in referencing. Each source is cited with a number in square brackets in text.

1. In-text citation

  • Format: a number enclosed in square brackets, e.g., [1], [3]-[5] (preferred), [3-5] (acceptable); the citation should be on the same line as text, before any punctuation.
  • Order: all citations are numbered in the order in which they first appear in the text; all citation numbers should be in sequential order.
  • Each citation number corresponds to a single reference source in the reference list at the end of the publication. Once a source has been cited, the same number should be used in all subsequent references.
  • Do not cite secondary source. Always cite the original source which is cited in a work you read.
Examples: 
Holmberg [1] stated that...
Cairo et al. [2, p. 20] claimed that "..."
Recent studies [3]-[6] have proved that...
Couple of studies reported similar results [2], [3], [5].

2. Reference list

  • Format: different type of sources uses different format of reference entry. See examples below for details.
  • Order: all references are sorted in numerical order.
Examples: 
► Book:
[1]  W. Mendenhall, R. J. Beaver, and Beaver, Barbara M., Introduction to Probability and Statistics, 15th ed. Boston, MA: Cengage, 2020.

► Journal article:
[2]  H. Y. Li, X. J. Jing, H. K. Lam, and P. Shi, "Fuzzy Sampled-Data Control for Uncertain Vehicle Suspension Systems," IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 1111-1126, 2013.

► Conference article:
[3] C. J. Cheung, S. Law, and Y. Zheng, "Development of 3-D ultrasound system for assessment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS): And system validation," in Proceedings of the 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Osaka, Japan, 3-7 July 2013, pp. 6474-6477.

► Internet resource (webpage):
[4] The Hong Kong Housing Authority, Housing in figures, 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.housingauthority.gov.hk/en/about-us/publications-and-statistics/HIF2011.pdf [Accessed Mar. 7, 2014].

 

References: